PACT Tool Set
Assess performance of teamwork and communication in simulated scenarios using the TeamSTEPPS® framework.
The Macy Interprofessional Collaborative Project was funded by the Macy and Hearst Foundations to develop a simulation-based, team training program for health professional students. The overall goal of the program is to improve the delivery of safe, high quality care by promoting interprofessional team communication. TeamSTEPPS® developed by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) was chosen as the framework for the training program. A Performance Assessment for Communication and Teamwork (PACT) tool set was developed using the TeamSTEPPS® framework to assess performance on teamwork and communication in simulated scenarios.
The PACT tool set includes three tools: 1) PACT-novice, 2) PACT-expert, and 3) PACT-video. This package includes the 3 PACT tools, a list of definitions of key terms and concepts, a rater training program, a coding protocol, a coding reference, and a description of the behavioral markers to help utilize the PACT tools more effectively.
- PACT-novice (.pdf) is designed for novice raters who are not familiar with TeamSTEPPS® or who do not have previous coder training experience to perform a real-time assessment. PACT-novice contains the 5 TeamSTEPPS® constructs and sample behaviors of constructs are provided on the tool. Raters are asked to rate the constructs using a 5-point quality scale and to record notes in the “comment” column. A list of definitions of key terms and concepts describing team communication was developed to accompany the PACT-novice tool in order to help raters understand key concepts of TeamSTEPPS®.
- PACT-expert (.pdf) is designed for experienced raters who are familiar with TeamSTEPPS® to perform a real-time assessment. PACT-expert contains 19 behavioral markers that were drawn from the PACT-video. These 19 behavioral markers were representative of the behavioral markers observed in the videos of effective team communication. Raters are asked to use a 4-point Likert scale of quality (poor-excellent) to assess each behavioral marker, as well as the 5 overall TeamSTEPPS® constructs.
- PACT-video (.pdf) is designed for institutions that want to have more detailed information on team performance. Extensive training for raters to use PACT-video is recommended. PACT-video contains 5 behavioral markers under each construct (26 behavioral markers in total). PACT-video has frequency and quality scales to collect both quantitative and qualitative information.
- Definitions of Key Terms and Concepts (.pdf)
- Rater Training Program (.pdf)
- Coding Protocol (.pdf)
- Coding Reference (.pdf)
- Description of The Behavioral Markers (.pdf)
Note: We are in the process of gathering the validation evidence for the tools. The PACT tool set was developed to assess performance from a team perspective not as individuals. Because the nature of current healthcare system is very dynamic, the makeup of a team changes constantly. There is potential to use PACT-expert and PACT-video for individual performance assessments. However, other uses of the tools are still under evaluation and development.
The Macy Interprofessional Collaborative Project was funded by the Josiah Macy Jr. and Hearst Foundations to develop a simulation-based, team training program for health professions students. The overall goal of the program is to improve the delivery of safe, high quality care by promoting interprofessional team communication. TeamSTEPPS®, developed by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) and Department of Defense (DoD), was chosen as the framework for the training program. TeamSTEPPS measurement tools listed on our website come from the TeamSTEPPS® 2.0 Curriculum available at https://www.ahrq.gov/teamstepps/instructor/index.html. The Performance Assessment for Communication and Teamwork (PACT) tool set was developed by UW Macy Assessment Team members* using the TeamSTEPPS® framework to assess performance on teamwork and communication in simulated scenarios.
*UW Macy Assessment Team members:
- Chia-Ju Chiu, PhD
- Douglas Brock, PhD
- Erin Abu-Rish, PhD, RN
- Linda Vorvick, MD
- Sharon Wilson, RN, MSN, FNP-BC
- Dana Hammer, PhD, PharmD
- Douglas Schaad, PhD
- Katherine Blondon, MD
- Brenda Zierler, PhD, RN, FAAN